Try finding these specific points on the map as a way to learn more about the key technologies and companies
In vivo CAR-T. It's a thing.
Umoja is one to watch. You can find it down the Gene Therapy branch, but unlike all its CAR-T peers, Umoja is attempting CAR-T without involving any of the cell processing.VivoVec UB-VV100 + RACR-CD19 CAR in vivo CAR-T targeting CD19
Find the approved CAR-T therapies.
You'll see that the approved CAR-Ts are all quite closely related, with two of them coming from the same company and targeting the same cell membrane protein (CD19).
Allogeneic CAR T is an emerging field to watch.
Look for Precision Bioscience on the map and see where it lives relative to more traditional CAR T programs.PBCAR0191 Allogeneic CAR T therapy
The same gene therapy company can be pursuing multiple modes of delivery.
Look for Beam Therapeutics under the Gene Therapy section. Beam is increasing their chances of success by employing a lipid nanoparticle approach as well as an electroporation approach to effecting genetic change in target cells.
In this video you'll hear about the key differences to think about when you're interacting with Cell and Gene companies compared to small molecule and recombinant protein drug developers.
Nick Stephens, President of The RSA Group, shares his observations on the patient-centric mission that Cell and Gene companies tend to have.
Janel Firestein from Clarkston Consulting shares her experiences around the higher data and digital needs that Cell Therapy companies tend to have, because of their need for transparency in the supply chain.
Sergio Armani, VP Business Development at Advarra, shares some of the challenges he sees from his vantage point related to the clinical complexity of running a gene therapy study. Sergio also shares guidance on IBC Reviews.
2.1. Yes. They are working on cancer. What type of cells are they administering in their oncology therapy?
2.1.1.. Dendritic cells. Are the dendritic cells the patient receives derived from her/his own cells?
188.8.131.52. No. They are donor-derived cells (allogeneic). An example here of allogeneic dendritic cells is Lineage Cell Therapeutics' VAC2 Product.
184.108.40.206. Yes. The cells are from the patient (autologous). An example here of a company working on autologous dendritic cells is APAC Biotech.
2.1.2. T-Cells. Are the T-cells being genetically modified prior to the patient receiving them?
220.127.116.11 No. Sometimes this is referred to as 'optimized' or 'non-engineered.' Are the T-cells being used to target solid tumors or blood cancers?
18.104.22.168.1 Solid Tumors. Examples here include InstilBio's ITIL-168 and Iovance's LN-144.
22.214.171.124.2 Blood cancers. An example here is NexImmune's NEXI-002, which the company is using to target Multiple Myeloma.
126.96.36.199. Yes, the cells are being genetically modified. This is sometimes referred to as "engineered.' What type of genetic modification is made to the T-cells?
188.8.131.52.1 Other genetic modifications. Immatics/ TCR bispecifics. KSQ / KSQ-001
184.108.40.206.2 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) gene(s) added: CAR-T. Are the T-cells the patient receives from her/his own cells?
220.127.116.11.1.1 No. From Donors Allogeneic CAR-T (newer fields). Precision Biosciences / PBCARD191 (targets CD19)
18.104.22.168.1.2 Yes. Autologous CAR-T “Classic CAR”. Are they targeting a Hematological condition? (blood cancer)
22.214.171.124.1.2.1 Yes. Blood cancer. (aka liquid tumors). What is the (antigen) target of the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)?
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 CAR-T Examples Targeting BCMA.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 Legend Biotec / Cartitude-1 Program.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.2 Arcellx / CART-ddBCMA
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 CAR-T Example Targeting CD20
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 MustangBio / MB-106
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 CAR-T Examples Targeting CD38 molecule on cancer cells
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 Celgene Bristol Myers Squibb Company. Abecma (idecabtogene vicleucel). FDA Approved.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 CAR-T Examples Targeting CD19 molecule on cancer cells
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 Kite a Gilead Company. Yescarta. FDA Approved.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2 Kite a Gilead Company. Tecartus. FDA Approved.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.3 Novartis. Kymriah. FDA Approved.
18.104.22.168.1.2.2 No. Solid tumors. MustangBio / MB-103 (targets HER2)
2.1.3. NK Cells (Natural Killer Cells). Are the NK cells being genetically modified prior to the patient receiving them?
22.214.171.124 No. Celularity / CYNK-001. Artiva / AB-101.
126.96.36.199 Yes. Some Genetic Change. Are the NK cells being programmed to express a Chimeric Antigen Receptor?
188.8.131.52.1 Yes. “CAR NK”. Artiva / AB-201 [HER2]. Nkarta Therapeutics / NKX019. Cytovia Therapeutics / CYT-503. ONK Therapeutics / ONKT101.
184.108.40.206.2 No. Other genetic manipulations. Shoreline / preclinical programs. Coeptis Pharmaceuticals / CD38-GEAR-NK (autologous).
2.1.4 Other cell types
220.127.116.11 Immunovative Therapies Ltd. / AlloStim
18.104.22.168 Acepodia / “ACE1831” (y/8 T-cells)
22.214.171.124 Geneta Science / Temeferon (HP stem cells)
2.2. No. Are the cells used for some sort of regeneration treatment?
2.2.1 Yes. Targeting regeneration and repair. Where are the cells from?
126.96.36.199 Other cell types
188.8.131.52 iPSCs. What disease/tissues is the company targeting?
184.108.40.206.1 Liver disease. GC Liver Therapeutics / Hepatocyte product
220.127.116.11.2 Muscular dystrophies. Vita Therapeutics / VTA – 110
18.104.22.168.3 Cardio. Spark Therapeutics / Preclinical candidates
22.214.171.124 Cardiac fibroblasts
126.96.36.199.1 Cardio > Ischemic Heart Dis. Metcela / MTC001
188.8.131.52 Example: sickle cell disease. Graphite Bio / GPH101 - (HSCs modified with functioning version of beta globulin)
184.108.40.206 Example: infectious diseases.
220.127.116.11.1 Respiratory infections Allo Vir – ALVR106
18.104.22.168.2 Infectious diseases > HIV – Antion Biosciences – anti-HIV CAR-T2. Talks about making genetic changes or uses "gene therapy" terminology. Does the genetic alteration get either incorporated into the cell’s DNA or get replicated to future copies of the cell?
2.1 No. Fake out? Not technically a gene therapy. More accurately a Nucleic-acid based therapy or Therapeutic Nucleic Acid.
2.1.1 e.g. The Pfizer and Moderna COVID mRNA vaccines.
2.1.2 Dyne Therapeutics – siRNA enters the cell nucleus but does not alter DNA.
2.2 Yes. Okay, a legit gene therapy. Do they talk about adding a fully working copy of a faulty gene or instructions for a brand new protein?
2.2.1 No new genes. Just tweaks to existing. Additional genes are NOT added to the genome or passed on during cell division. “GENE EDITING”. Targeted breaks are created. Are instructions to repair the breaks given?
22.214.171.124 No. Instructions to repair the break are not given. GENE INACTIVATION (aka silencing knockout or knockdown). How is the genetic material or therapeutic reaching the cells?
126.96.36.199.1 Adeni-Associated Virus (AAV)
188.8.131.52.1.1 Heart Disease> PCSK9 gene. Precision Biosciences
184.108.40.206.2 Lipid nanoparticle “LNP”
220.127.116.11.2.1 Heart Disease> PCSK9 gene. Verve Therapeutics / VERVE-101
18.104.22.168 Yes. Instructions ARE given to correct the function of the gene. GENE INSERTION – new genetic material added during the edit. Is the therapy applied to cells while the cells are inside the patient’s body?
22.214.171.124.1 No. Outside the body (“ex vivo”) Technically a Cell-based Gene Therapy.
126.96.36.199.1.1 Sickle cell disease. Graphite Bio / GPH101-(HSCs modified with functioning version of beta globulin)
188.8.131.52.2 Yes. “In vivo”. How is the genetic material or therapeutic reaching the cells?
184.108.40.206.2.1 Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)
220.127.116.11.2.1.1 Metabolic> MMA. LogicBio Therapeutics / LB-001
18.104.22.168.2.2 Lipid nanoparticle “LNP”
22.214.171.124 GENE CORRECTION – no new material added. How is the therapeutic reaching the cells?
126.96.36.199.1 Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)
188.8.131.52.1.1 Musculoskeletal> DMD. Precision Biosciences
184.108.40.206.2 Lipid Nanoparticle “LNP” (aka non-viral)
220.127.116.11.2.1 Liver > Glycogen storage dis. Beam Therapeutics / Preclinical program
18.104.22.168.3.1 Hemat. > Sickle Cell Disease. Beam Therapeutics / BEAM-101
2.2.2 Yes. “GENE ADDITION”. Is the therapy applied to cells while the cells are inside the patient’s body?
22.214.171.124 Yes. Takes place in Vivo. How is the genetic material or therapeutic reaching the cells?
126.96.36.199.1 Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)
188.8.131.52.1.1 Musculoskeletal> SM. Novartis. Zolgensma. FDA Approved
184.108.40.206.1.2 Ophthalmology > AMD. Gyroscope Vision for Life / GT-005
220.127.116.11.1.3 Metabolic>Diabetes. Kriya Therapeutics / KT-A112
18.104.22.168.2.1 Oncology. Umoja Biopharma / In Vivo CAR-T (new field)
22.214.171.124.3.1 Generation bio / preclinical programs
126.96.36.199 No. It takes place Ex Vivo. Technically a cell-based gene therapy. Is the gene encoding a chimeric antigen T-cell receptor?
188.8.131.52.1 No. Some other gene is being added. Try starting frsh but heading down the Cell Therapy Path.
184.108.40.206.2 Yes. Go to CAR-T.
220.127.116.11.2.1 Infectious Diseases > HIV. Antion Biosciences / anti-HIV CAR-T.
18.104.22.168.2.2 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) gene(s) added: CAR-T. Are the T-cells the patient receives from her/his own cells?
22.214.171.124.2.2.1 No. From Donors Allogeneic CAR-T (newer fields). Precision Biosciences / PBCARD191 (targets CD19)
126.96.36.199.2.2.2 Yes. Autologous CAR-T “Classic CAR”. Are they targeting a Hematological condition? (blood cancer)
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Yes. Blood cancer. (aka liquid tumors). What is the (antigen) target of the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)?
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 CAR-T Examples Targeting BCMA.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1 Legend Biotec / Cartitude-1 Program.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.2 Arcellx / CART-ddBCMA
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2 CAR-T Example Targeting CD20
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2.1 MustangBio / MB-106
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.3 CAR-T Examples Targeting CD38 molecule on cancer cells
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.3.1 Celgene Bristol Myers Squibb Company. Abecma (idecabtogene vicleucel). FDA Approved.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.4 CAR-T Examples Targeting CD19 molecule on cancer cells
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.4.1 Kite a Gilead Company. Yescarta. FDA Approved.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.4.2 Kite a Gilead Company. Tecartus. FDA Approved.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.4.3 Novartis. Kymriah. FDA Approved.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 No. Solid tumors. MustangBio / MB-103 (targets HER2)